Author's Guide

Guidelines for Authors

Manuscript Preparation

A properly prepared manuscript is crucial to the timely, accurate, and cost-effective composition of RES. Certain industry-wide standards are used to expedite production, and the form in which the manuscript is written is one of these standards. It is the responsibility of the author to be aware of the specific requirements that are necessary for the submission of a clean, usable manuscript for production. Manuscripts and computer files that have not been properly prepared will be either returned to the author for corrections or corrected by the editorial office at the author’s expense.

The Publication Department uses the Macintosh platform for computer work, and authors are encouraged to use this hardware if available. Of course, most word processing software, including that available for DOS and Windows, now has the capability to be translated into any number of other program formats. An exception to this is the word processing program Nota Bene, which should not be used. Authors should be sure to save their files in the format of their word processing software and not as ASCII, text only, or postscript files. Any necessary conversion will be done by the editors.

It is useful to remember that a manuscript should be prepared as a manuscript and not as a book. Although it may look better to the author, the inclusion of varying typestyles, indentions, graphics, and footnoted page layouts—all to make the manuscript more "book-like"—do nothing but increase the workload for the production staff. All of this cosmetic formatting must be removed before production can begin. A manuscript should be prepared in a way that allows the design elements to be added rather than subtracted. This generally requires the use of computer word processing programs in their most basic format—that is, their default styles and settings.

Ideally, the length of the submission should be around nine thousand words, including footnotes and bibliography. The number of illustrations may vary from six to ten.

1. General Manuscript Preparation

A number of requirements are universal in their application throughout a properly prepared manuscript:

Double spaced. All manuscript material should have double-spaced lines of text and be printed on 8 1/2" x 11" paper. No text of any kind in the manuscript should be less than double spaced.

12-Point Type Size. The text font of the manuscript should be 12 point.

One-Inch Margins. All margins of the manuscript—left and right, top and bottom—should be at least 1" wide.

Flush Left, Ragged Right. All text lines should be flush left and ragged right, that is, unjustified (not flush or lined up) on the right side. Never justify any portion of the text, no matter how uncommon or unusual.

Page Numbers. The manuscript pages should be consecutively numbered throughout.

2. Character and Paragraph Preparation

These requirements are related to specific character and format aspects of most word processing programs.

Fonts. Only one text font should be used throughout the manuscript. This applies to every kind of text, including titles and heads. If any special fonts are used for foreign languages (e.g., Hebrew, Greek, Chinese, etc.), the author must notify the editorial office as early as possible, because the fonts may need to be purchased and integrated into our desktop publishing system. Special fonts should not be supplied by the author.

Italics. Italicized words may either be denoted with the main text’s italic font or underlined: note that whichever method is used, it should be consistent throughout the manuscript.

Bold. Bold text fonts should not be used.

Superscripts and Subscripts. Both subscripts and superscripts should be inserted in the text using the word processing program’s character commands.

Hyphens and Dashes. Hyphens (-) are entered using the hyphen key. In most word processing programs, en dashes (–) and em dashes (—) require a character command. If the author’s word processing program hyphenates words automatically at the end of lines, this function should be turned off during manuscript preparation.

Diacritics and Symbols. If the author’s word processing program can insert diacritical marks or symbols with keyboard commands, this should be done as the manuscript is being prepared. Unusual diacritics and symbols, or those which cannot be entered, should be carefully written on the manuscript in black ink for each character that requires them. The author should keep a list of all diacritical marks and symbols used throughout the text and include them on a style sheet.

Paragraphs and Indention. New paragraphs should be denoted with a paragraph return and a 1/2" indention. Paragraph indention should be achieved using the application of a defined style in the word processing program and not by using tabs. There should be no extra line spaces between paragraphs.

Heads. The structure of most scholarly articles follows a simple hierarchy. This hierarchy, which uses any number of "heads" (A-heads, B-heads, and so forth), outlines the structure of any well-presented text. The author should format the text in this manner, which follows the simple organization common to outlining.

Tables and Lists. Tables and lists must be properly constructed using tabs and tab stops (flush left tab stops for text and decimal tab stops for numbers). The author should consult her/his word processing program manual on how to accomplish this task. Never input the text for tables or lists using the program’s default tab settings, which results in the repeated use of tabs to space out text from one column to another (a serious keyboarding mistake, which later must be corrected). There should be only one keystroke tab for each column of information: that is, column tab stops are set based on the longest text that any column has in it. Though various kinds of information may be presented, it is the author’s job to see to it that tables and lists throughout a manuscript are structured in the same manner, as much as is possible (this is easily accomplished using a pre-defined style to structure tables).

3. Word Usage Styles.

While certain usage styles are particular to specific academic fields, as a rule, word usage should follow the guidelines found in The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) and Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. The author should keep note of all words, spellings, diacritics, and punctuation that are unusual or unique to the manuscript and include them in a style sheet to be submitted with the manuscript.

Specific RES usage style requirements are outlined below:

Punctuation. No words should be hyphenated unless they usually contain a hyphen or form a temporary compound word.

En dashes are used for inclusive dates and compound words comprised of one or more hyphenated words. Em dashes are used in place of commas, semicolons, colons, or parentheses for a more emphatic separation of word clauses. A detailed description on the proper usage of dashes is given in CMS 6.83–94.

Periods are not used after metric abbreviations: e.g., cm, mm, km

Plural dates, such as 1920s, have no apostrophe.

Use the serial comma, i.e., commas should be used before the last element in a series: e.g., beads, pins, and clocks.

Possessives of proper names ending in s should generally be formed with s’s: e.g., Howells’s. See CMS 17–23 for details and exceptions.

Inclusive numbers should be separated by an en dash and should be given in full. Examples: 8–10, 22–23, 100–102, 105–117, 107–109, 199–221, 133–134, 1002–1006, 1074–1076. Dates: 1900–1901, 1914–1918.

Spelling and Distinctive Treatment of Words. Spell out whole numbers from one through ninety-nine and any whole numbers above followed by hundred, thousand, hundred thousand, million, and so on. See CMS 9.2–13 for details and exceptions.

Verify that ohs (O) and zeros (0) have been differentiated and also that ones (1) and els (l) have been differentiated.

The word percent should be used within text, but the symbol % should be used in tables and lists.

Capitalization is used for proper names and those events, movements, eras, etc. that are customarily capitalized. Use lower case if there is no precedent.

The word "figure" is spelled out when used in the text: e.g., please see figure 13. When cited in parentheses, the word "figure" is abbreviated: e.g., (see fig. 13). In text, use lowercase for both "figure" and "fig." All letter designations following figure numbers should be roman with no extra space: e.g., figure 34a, (fig. 123c–g).

Spell out centuries: e.g., fifteenth century. Hyphenate centuries when they are used as adjectives: e.g., fifteenth-century painting.

Abbreviations. Use small caps for B.C. and A.D. A.D. precedes the year; B.C. follows the year. B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) are equivalent to B.C. and A.D.

Use roman and lowercase for "cf." "Cf." should be used only in footnotes and means "compare"; it should not be used to mean "see."

Circa (ca.) is used only with dates, not with measurements. Preferred handling is to use "ca." in roman and lowercase inside parentheses and "about" outside parentheses.

Foreign Languages. Do not italicize foreign words and phrases that are in common usage or that have been anglicized. Refer to Webster’s Third New International Dictionary: do not italicize words that appear in the main section of the dictionary; do italicize words or phrases that appear at the end in the section "Foreign Words and Phrases." If the word does not appear in the dictionary, the author’s preference prevails.

Accents and Diacritics. Do not use accents for anglicized words in text. Use accents only for italicized foreign words, in foreign quotations, and in foreign titles.

4. References.

Both in-text author/date citations with bibliography and humanities style footnotes are used in RES. Both forms should not be used in the same article (however, in the author/date system, author/date citations can be given in substantive footnotes). When footnotes are used for the citation of references, do not give any references parenthetically in the text: e.g., do not use ibid or an author's name in parentheses in the text after a full citation has been given in a previous footnote.

In-Text References. The RES usage style is to abbreviate in-text references as follows:

(Tourtellot 1988:147, 188–189)
(Smith 1982:49–50, figs. 54, 157, table 2)
(Smith 1981:fig. 54)

For more than three authors, use the name of the first author followed by "et al." for in-text citations: e.g., (Smith et al. 1978). Never use "et al." in bibliographies; the names of all authors must be given in full in the bibliography.

When the reference is to both volume and page of the author's work, a colon will distinguish between the two: e.g., (Jones 1981:2:33–37, 4:23). A reference to a volume only with no page number requires "vol." for clarity: e.g., (Jones 1981:vol. 2).

Multiple works by the same author cited by date only are separated by a comma: e.g., (Brown 1910, 1926). The oldest reference is listed first in the text and in the bibliography. When page numbers are given, the references are separated by semicolons and the name is repeated: e.g., (Kelly 1957a:23–34; Kelly 1960; Kelly 1964:22–27).

Multiple references grouped together are separated by semicolons; e.g., (Kelly 1957a:23–34; Jones 1981:2:33–37; Brown 1910).

Use "ibid." (roman) when a reference is being made that is identical to the immediately previous reference.

Bibliographies. The anthropological style is used for bibliographies:

Books: Stuart, A., and J. K. Doe
1968 Basic Ideas of Scientific Sampling. Griffin's Statistical Monographs and Courses 4. Hafner, New York.

Stevens, R. L.
1964 "The Soils of Middle America and Their Relation to Indian Peoples and Cultures," in Handbook of Middle American Indians, ed. R. Wauchope and R. C. West, vol. 1, pp. 265–315. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Journal: Sidrys, R.
1976 "Classic Maya Obsidian Trade." American Antiquity 41(4):49–54.

Dissertation: Millon, R. F.
1955 "When Money Grew on Trees: A Study of Cacao in Ancient Mesoamerica" Ph.D. diss., Columbia University.

Footnotes. The humanities style is used for footnotes:

1. A. Stuart and J. K. Doe, Basic Ideas of Scientific Sampling. Griffin's Statistical Monographs and Courses 4 (New York: Hafner, 1968).

2. R. L. Stevens, "The Soils of Middle America and Their Relation to Indian Peoples and Cultures," in Handbook of Middle American Indians, ed. R. Wauchope and R. C. West (Austin: University of Texas Press, Austin, 1964), vol. 1, pp. 265–315.

Journal: 3. R. Sidrys, "Classic Maya Obsidian Trade," American Antiquity 41, no. 4 (1976):49–54.

Dissertation: 4. R. F. Millon, "When Money Grew on Trees: A Study of Cacao in Ancient Mesoamerica" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1955).

Subsequent references should not use short titles, but should refer to the note in which the full reference is first cited. Short titles should only be included when necessary to differentiate between two works by the same author first cited in the same footnote. E.g.:

1. R. Sidrys, "Classic Maya Obsidian Trade," American Antiquity 41, no. 4 (1976):49–54.
2. R. F. Millon, "When Money Grew on Trees: A Study of Cacao in Ancient Mesoamerica" (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1955); R. F. Millon, Urbanization at Teotihuacan (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973).
3. Sidrys (see note 1), p. 50.
4. Ibid., p. 52.
5. Millon, "When Money Grew on Trees" (see note 2), p. 28.

Use title capitalization style (capitalize the first and last words and all other words except articles, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions) for English-language titles of books, journal articles, and chapters.

Anglicize the city of publication in references to foreign books.

Please consult CMS for other issues relating to bibliographic or footnote forms.

5. Illustration Captions.

The author makes the decision on how explanatory material accompanying illustrations is styled; whether it is to be a descriptive statement or a listing of facts. After that decision is made, the caption style should remain consistent throughout the manuscript. If a particular credit line is required by the copyright holder of the illustration or artwork, that wording must be used . Include the negative number of any photograph from the Peabody Museum Photographic Archives collection.
The standard format for RES captions is:

For artwork - Artist, Name of Work, date. Materials, dimensions. Museum. Photo: Courtesy of _________. [OR Photo: Name of Photographer. Courtesy of _________.]

For archaeological object - Description, culture, date, findspot. Material, dimensions. Museum. Photo: Courtesy of _________. [OR Photo: Name of Photographer. Courtesy of _________.]

Copyright and Permissions

Obtaining permission to use copyrighted materials in a publication and paying any associated fees is a responsibility that fully rests with the author. Permission is required for the reproduction of most illustrations, quotations, and other protected and copyrighted materials, and is governed by United States copyright law. The author should define what materials in the manuscript require permission for use, contact the copyright holder, obtain permission release letters, and pay any related fees. The author must confirm that all permissions have been obtained by providing the editorial office with copies of signed permission release letters. The manuscript cannot go into production until a complete set of permission releases has been received by the editors.

The following guidelines are intended to assist the author in determining when permission to quote or reprint must be sought. These are merely guidelines, and as such do not constitute a legal interpretation.

1. Direct Quotation

Permission is needed to quote 500 words in total from a scholarly work and 250 words from a scholarly article. Proper credit must always be given.

Permission is needed for any quotation from a trade, or commercial, publication.

No more than two lines of poetry may be quoted without permission. If two lines constitute a stanza, permission is needed.

Permission is always needed for any quotation from a copyrighted song.

Quotations from unpublished works such as dissertations, academic papers, and material from unpublished collections require permission.

Permissions must be requested to quote from any letters or personal papers that have been copyrighted, unless the copyright has expired. If the letters or papers were never copyrighted, you must request permission to quote from the writer. If the writer is deceased, you will need permission from the writer’s heirs. If the quote is from a collection of papers housed in a special repository, the permissions request must be addressed to the curator of the collection.

In respect to reprintings or revisions of the author’s own published material, it is important that he/she review the original contracts or agreements to ascertain whether or not permission must be secured from the publisher. In every case when previously published material is used, full facts of the original publication must be cited.

2. Paraphrase.

The copyright law is intended to prevent one writer from "using the mind of another writer." If the author must repeat the development of another’s argument, even for purposes of illustration, permission must be secured.

3. Illustration, Tables, and Artwork.

The reproduction or adaptation of tables, charts, photographs, or artwork requires permission. When obtaining permission to reproduce an illustration, the individual or organization holding the copyright may specify a certain from of credit line, which must be honored.

When an illustration is traced/copied from another person’s original piece of artwork, this does not result in a new original; it results in a copy of someone else’s original artwork for which permission must be obtained.

Making slight modifications to someone else's previously published figure and then crediting the illustration as "after" the original author is an entirely unacceptable way of trying to avoid obtaining proper permissions.

Verbal communications are not legal documents and are not sufficient documentation for our files; we need written permission from the copyright holder.

Photographs taken by anyone other than the author require the permission of the photographer.

Drawing done by any anyone other than the author require the permission of the artist.

Photographs of any object in a museum collection or private collection require the permission of the museum or the collector.

Sometimes, despite an author's best efforts, no response is received to requests for permissions. In such case, copies of the author's letters requesting permission are adequate documentation of a good-faith attempt. A good-faith attempt at obtaining permission requires that the author has sent at least three requests that have not been answered in six months or more. Sending three letters within a few days of each other in the month before publication will not be accepted as documentation of a good-faith attempt.

Submission Guidelines

Below is a listing of general submission guidelines.

1. Manuscript Submission

Page Numbers. The entire manuscript should be numbered consecutively from the title page through the last page.

Printing. Print out the manuscript on 8 1/2" x 11" paper, on one side of the page only. The material on the manuscript hard copy and the computer files must be identical; print the manuscript from the actual files that are provided on disk to the Peabody. Do not enter any additions or corrections to the computer files after the manuscript has been printed.

Loose Pages. The manuscript should be submitted as unbound loose pages. Do not bind or staple the manuscript in any way.

2. Compact Disk Submission

Disks. In addition to the hard copy, the manuscript should be submitted electronically on a CD. Label the disks with author name, file names, word processing software used (including release number), and the computer system on which the manuscript was prepared.

Computer Files. File copies provided to the editorial office must be the actual file used to print the manuscript. The author should retain the original file on his/her own computer system and/or on a backup disk. Files should be saved in the same word processing program format in which they were created. Do not save the files as ASCII, text only, or Postscript files. Any necessary conversion will be done by the editors.

3. Illustration and Artwork Submission

All illustrations and artwork must be numbered on the back side, either lightly in pencil or on removable labels, with the same numbering system used in the text for callouts: e.g., fig. 5.

All illustrations and artwork must be accompanied by complete captions, proper credit lines, and complete permissions documentation.

Original artwork and good quality reproductions are both acceptable for publication. Photocopies of artwork are not acceptable. Ink jet or laser printouts of scanned photographs are not acceptable.

For one-color printing, all photographs should be high contrast, black-and-white glossies. If black-and-white photographs are unavailable, color photographs can be converted. Never write directly on the front of any photograph or use ink of any kind on the back. Do not bind photographs together with clips or anything that might leave an impression on them.

Authors can also submit art in a digital format. All digitally submitted halftone art must be at least 300 dpi in resolution, with the size of the image approximately 8 x 10 in. All line art submitted digitally must be at least 1200 dpi.

Mailing address

All submissions should be sent to RES Editorial Office, 12 East 74th Street, New York, NY 10021.

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